Thursday, September 10, 2009

off road

aktiviti off road.
kepada sesiapa yg mempunyai basikal bukit atau mountain bike. anda dijemput untuk memeriahkan lg aktiviti yg sehat ini.

hari: jumaat
tarikh: 11/9/09
tempat: sekitar hutan utm
jam : 5 pm

kalo mau ikot, anda semua dikehendaki berkumpul di bawah bangunan suksis dekat kolej perdana.
peserta perlu membawa

1. diri dan basikal
2.sebotol air (bg yg x berpuasa)
3.tiub spare

majulah sokan untuk negara

Wednesday, September 9, 2009

Cycling Performance Tips - Climbing


Although you develop more power while standing (you are taking advantage of all your upper body weight pushing down on the pedals), you also use 10 to 12% more energy as your pelvis isn't in contact with the saddle which means more work for your core and back muscles as you pull up on the unweighted pedal. The net effect is more energy used (less efficient) to climb standing versus to climb seated.

On short climbs, the length of a football field or less, it makes little difference. But on longer climbs, stay in the saddle and spin at 80 - 85 RPM. This is particularly so if you are heavier as standing puts just that much more weight on your leg muscles, while sitting uses the seat to help take the extra upper body weight off your legs. Staying in the saddle will:

  • burn less energy - heart rate is approximately 8% lower for any set speed
  • use your bigger gluteal (butt) and hip muscles to your advantage

Want to train for climbing hills while seated?? Here is a drill you might consider. Go hard up short hills while seated. Find a climb that's moderately steep and takes about 30 seconds to crest. Hit it hard at the bottom in a fairly large gear. Beware of letting your cadence slow by the top. Use a gear that lets you pedal at 90 rpm or more all the way up. Start with two or three reps and increase as your strength improves.

That having been said, on long, fairly steep climbs, it may provide a break to alternate sitting and standing to employ different muscle groups. Just before you stand, shift to the next smaller cog, then shift back when you sit. These gear changes will help you maintain a steady pace during cadence changes.

And if you are going to stand, let the bike rock side to side under you - an arc of maybe 6 inches side to side. And don't lean too far forward. Stay back so that your weight is directly over the crank.


  • HAND POSITION Comfort overrides these comments, but for seated climbing, most riders prefer to keep their hands on top of the bars, perhaps 2 or 3 inches from the center stem. A wide grip on the top of the handlebar reduces breathing restriction. And remember to drop your elbows and relax your upper body.

    For out of the saddle climbing or aggressive climbs (where you are accelerating or attacking on the saddle) put your thumbs on the hoods and rest one or two fingers on the levers or wrapped around underneath. And when you get to that descent, most riders will go to the drops (keeping your wrists straight) for the aerodynamic advantages although others prefer the hoods for the feeling of control. But not the top of the bars as your hands will be too far from the brakes.

  • UPPER BODY STILL AND CHEST OPEN Keep your upper body quiet - the bike should rock under you (try pulling up on the handlebar opposite of the leg on a down stroke). Too much movement wastes energy. And your shoulders should be back and "open". If not, you are constricting your chest and cannot breathe efficiently.

  • SIT BACK ON THE SADDLE When you slide back on your seat, you gain a leverage advantage on the pedals. The only time you would want to slide forward is for a short sprint on a small rise.

WHEN YOU MUST STAND - pedaling while standing

If you must stand, remember it's hard to pull up because you aren't in contact with the saddle -- there's nothing to brace your hips to pull against -- and you will to power into BOTH the down and up strokes (12 to 5 o'clock on the down stroke and 7 to 10 o'clock on the upstroke). You should use your body weight to help you push down. Let the bike move fluidly under you. Don’t force it. The bike should rock rhythmically side to side in an arc of about 6 inches (judged by the movement of the handlebar stem). This gives each leg a direct push against its pedal and makes the best use of your weight. This will help to maintain a smooth stroke and your momentum. Don't lean too far forward. If the nose of your saddle is brushing the back of your thighs, you are just right. Farther forward and you will press the front tire into the pavement and lose power. Stay back a bit and find the front-to-back sweet spot. This helps center your weight over the crank to drive the pedals as described. And remember to shift up a gear or two just before you stand to take advantage of the extra power you gain from standing (but which you can’t maintain for any length of time).

Remember that if you are in a group, you need to consciously protect those behind you when you stand to climb. How you stand on a hill is very important - do it wrong and the guy behind might suddenly be on the pavement. The issue is the brief deceleration that can occur as you change from sitting to standing incorrectly, which, relative to other riders has the effect of sending your bike backwards and can cause the following rider's front wheel to hit your rear wheel.

On short, rolling hills, the trick is to click to the next higher gear (smaller cog), then stand and pedal over the top with a slightly slower cadence. This keeps quads from loading up with lactate because it helps you pedal with body weight. In fact, it can actually feel like you're stretching and refreshing your legs.

The correct way to stand:

  • It is good etiquette to announce "Standing!" a couple of pedal strokes before you do so.
  • Stand smoothly as one foot begins its downward power stroke - don't lunge, keep your effort constant.
  • As you come off the saddle, push your hands forward a bit. This helps to ensure that the bike won't lose ground.
  • When returning to the saddle, continue pedaling evenly and again push your hands forward to counteract any tendency to decelerate. This will gain several inches and put the seat right under you.
You can practice your technique with a friend during a training ride. They can ride behind and let you know when you've got the hang to it. That's when the gap between their front wheel and your rear wheel doesn't narrow each time you stand or sit.


Use the right gears and shift early to balance the work of your muscles and aerobic system. New riders often make the mistake of pushing their muscles until they cannot push any more. When they decide to shift to an easier gear -- if they have one -- it is often too late. The muscles are exhausted and unable to continue.


Think about this. If you ride up the hill in two minutes at 60 rpm, you've divided the total work into 120 pieces (consider each revolution of your pedals as a unit of work). But if you spin at 90, there would be 180. As you've done the same elevation gain, but now broken it into smaller bits, there will be less work (and strain on the knees) with each revolution. (And if you do have knee problems, take a break and stand during hills - which will change the biomechanics and give your knees a break).

Gear down before the hill. The goal is to avoid producing large quantities of lactic acid and then pedaling through the pain. You want a sustainable rhythm. Try to keep your cadence above 70 -- any slower puts excess stress on your knees. The optimum spin rates for efficient pedaling are somewhere between 70 and 80. One rider reported that he actually went faster as he increased his cadence in a lower gear. For example, he would maintain 6.5 mph at 50 rpm in one gear and then, as he geared down, he found he maintained 8 mph at 70 rpm without a perceived increase in effort. If you find that things are going well, you can always shift to a harder gear later.

Try to find the cadence that would let you "climb all day". You are pushing too hard if you:

  • can't keep a smooth pedal stroke
  • are panting or breathing irregularly


If you start to breathe irregularly, take a deep breath and hold it for a few pedal strokes. Try synchronizing your breathing with your pedal stroke - start by taking a breath every time one foot (your right one for example) reaches the bottom of a stroke. Then try 1 1/2, and finally every two strokes. You will actually deliver more oxygen to your system with a controlled rate.

After you've developed a good strength base in the weight room, the absolutely best way to

If you are going to be riding hills as part of an event or a tour, you might consider building up weekly climbing volume to around 125% of event climbing volume. If it is a one day event, aim to climb at least 60% of event elevation change volume on several rides. For example, if the event has 10,000 feet of climbing, you must climb 6,000 feet in training in one day, several times.

And don't foget to train for technique as well.

  • Find a hill that's 1/4 to 1/2 mile long - not too steep.
  • Find the gear that lets you spin at 100 rpm all the way to the top.
  • Keep your breathing steady. If you start panting, the gear is too high.
  • Then find a higher gear that reduces your cadence to around 50 rpm, but again without causing you to have labored breathing.
  • Now the exercise:
    • Climb the hill in the low gear with a fast cadence. Work on spinning smoothly.
    • Coast back down and then climb the hill in the higher gear (slow cadence) concentrating on applying an equal force all the way around the pedal stroke.
    • Repeat the cycle (4 total climbs)


One trick for weaker climbers in a group is to move near the front of the group near the start of the climb and allow others to pass as the climb continues. In that way, you will be near the back at the top but won't get dropped and have to fight back to close with the group.

Save a little for a short sprint over the top of the hill -- shift up and stand to accelerate and make up some distance.

Tuesday, September 8, 2009

Cycling Performance Tips - Stretching


With exercise there is microscopic injury to muscle tissue, and the more vigorous the activity or the more it exceeds your level of training, the greater that injury. This injury occurs in muscles which are actively contracting (your quads for example) as well as in muscles being held in a constant state of contraction (isometric) for long periods of time (such as your shoulder muscles on a long ride). Microscopic muscle injury is one of the reasons for why you get sore muscles after a vigorous workout or competition.

This microtrauma will cause the tissue to swell (edema) with an influx of inflammatory cells, and in the healing phase, there can be development of fibrous or scar tissue. During the initial inflammatory phase of this process the muscle responds with a reflex spasm which is
the tightness or knot you can feel.

Stretching or massage (where someone else is stretching the muscle in question for you) can help to relax this muscle spasm and minimize edema with subsequent fibrous tissue formation. And there is some evidence that a muscle that has been fully lengthened (stretched) before activity will contract more forcefully and improve performance.

It is important to stretch only after the muscle to be stretched has been actively warmed up - either with 5 or 10 minutes of exercise or in the post exercise period. There is scientific evidence that this will increase tissue elasticity and ductility, and reduce the frequency of injuries directly related to the stretching itself. Does stretching done after the warmup period decrease the incidence of injury from the subsequent activity? That is unproven at this point, but common sense would suggest that if the muscle edema and spasm are minimized, there should be less stress on the muscle fibers and thus less additional injury.

For cyclists, the most common muscles requiring post exercise stretching or massage are the hamstrings, quadriceps, and shoulder muscles. As an inflamed muscle, or one in spasm, is uncomfortable to pressure, it is easy for you to identify your own areas of overuse.

When massaging a muscle, two approaches can be used. First is to apply pressure on the area of discomfort (the palpable knot) with the muscle in a neutral, relaxed position. The pressure is then moved along the direction of the muscle fibers (remember to massage in the direction of the muscle fibers - the direction of pull of the muscle) to counteract the spasm and "work out" the pain. Over the last few years, there has been increased interest in "active" strecting or massage which means that steady pressure is maintained on the tender area or muscle, and the extremity is actively put through it's range of motion, contracting and moving the muscle beneath the point of pressure. The theory being that this involves the nerve/muscle unit and may retrain the entire motor unit to sustain a decrease in spasm after the massage session has been completed.

What can you do to maximize the benefits of a stretching program?

  1. keep a training diarythat includes notation of muscle soreness that might need extra stretching or massaing later, particularly if there is a trend over several days/weeks.
  2. stretch for long enough - I've heard the recommendation of 2 minutes of active stretching (that means keeping the muscle on stretch tension) for every 15 minutes of vigorous exercise. This was for track competitiors and may be less for those biking many hours a day for their training. But the idea is that you can't overdo on the time devoted to stretching.
  3. be sure to adequately hydrate during your exercise.

For those of you interested in additional web material on stretching, Liam Keever has put together a comprehensive site with a detailedstretching program at Bodymind Resources.


Stiffness or tightness in a muscle are probably related to some mild "spasm" in the muscle fibers along with edema or selling from microtrauma - but when you get a muscle cramp you are seeing spasm at its finest. There is not any single cause of the spontaneous contraction, or cramp, but there are several common scenarios including exercising at a level greater than your training, and water and electrolyte imbalances. Here are a few tips you might consider if you often suffer from cramps.

  1. Train for your event. If you are targeting a long-distance event, incorporate long rides into your training. If you will be doing intervals, train with intervals - and push yourself to the level you will be racing at.
  2. Eat a diet rich in carbohydrates (to minimize the risk of glycogen depeltion in the muscles). Glycogen loading can not only improve performance, but cramps are less likely if you ride moderately an hour or two the day before your target event. And eat during a ride of greater than two hours.
  3. Eat a diet rich in calcium, potassium and magnesium If it is going to be a particularly hot ride (or hot and long) and you will be lsoing significant salt in your perspiration, put a little extra salt on your meals before hand.
  4. Stay adequately hydrated both before and during the event.
  5. Consider medications as a cause. Diuretics especially can predispose to cramps with exercise.

Sunday, September 6, 2009

Mountain Bike Riding Tips and Techniques

Mountain biking is an exciting sport that can be enjoyed by everyone who knows how to ride a bike. It does, however, present some additional challenges compared to the average neighborhood ride. Master these basic skills before you hit the real dirt and turn those obstacles into something to look forward to.

1. Pedal play - Get used to your pedals(This is only if u use pedal clip and mtb shoes)

* For those who have pedal clip and mtb shoes .Practice removing your foot from the pedal. Do this first while sitting on your bike with one foot on the ground. Then move on to releasing and replacing your foot while pedaling around. Beginners with toe clip and clipless type pedals will want to spend a little more time here

2. Sit and spin for proper sit and position

Sit on your bike and pedal around. Your arms should remain slightly bent. Your seat height should be adjusted so your leg is about 70 to 90 percent extended at the bottom of every pedal stroke. Keep your body loose and relaxed. There is never a situation when you should have your
knees or elbows locked.

3. Shifting Gears- Learning how and when to Shift

Get comfortable with shifting the gears on your bike. Higher gears are harder to pedal and will go faster while lower gears are easier to pedal and help you get up hills. Next, try to get used to what gears you need to be in to comfortably go up different pitched hills. As the hills get steeper, it is best to shift before you get to the hill rather than while you are on the hill.

4. Pedal up - learn to pedal while standings

Get comfortable with pedaling while standing on your bike. Lift yourself off the seat, stand on your pedals and crank them around. Try this in higher gears on the flat and in lower gears on the hills.

a short about basic techniques to ride mouintain bike and ready to off road.

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